Cardiff Metropolitan University
Moeskops_S_Thesis_FINAL.pdf (10.11 MB)

The effects of growth, maturation and training on strength and power development in young artistic female gymnasts

Download (10.11 MB)
posted on 2022-10-28, 14:24 authored by Sylvia Moeskops
Female artistic gymnastics demands a combination of physical abilities including strength,
power and speed to perform a diverse set of skills. Although gymnasts’ training typically
commences early in the prepubertal years, very little is known about how these physical
qualities develop due to the interaction of maturation and training and how these measures
influence vaulting performance. Chapter 3 showed that within- and between-session measures
of absolute (PFabs) and relative peak force (PFrel) from an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) test
were reliable for both pre-peak height velocity [PHV] (CV ≤ 9.4%, ICC ≥ 0.87) and post-PHV
(CV ≤ 7.3%, ICC ≥ 0.92). However, systematic bias was evident between-sessions 1 and 2 in
the pre-PHV group. Therefore, the IMTP was deemed a reliable method of measuring peak
force in pre- and post-PHV female athletes, providing that pre-PHV athletes attend an
additional familiarisation session.
Chapters 4-6 revealed that the majority of absolute isometric and dynamic force-time variables
from the IMTP and jumping protocols increase with maturation. The IMTP results showed
PFabs and absolute force at various time epochs were significantly greater in the most mature
cohort compared to the least mature group of gymnasts (p < 0.05; all d > 0.60). Vertical
jumping performance improved with biological maturity, as evidenced by the most mature
gymnasts’ producing significantly more absolute force (p < 0.05; all d > 0.78), impulse (p <
0.05; all d > 0.75), power (p < 0.05; all d > 0.91) and jump heights (p < 0.05; all d > 0.70) than
the least mature group. No significant differences were observed in PFrel across the jumping
tests, although measures of relative peak power (PPrel) did significantly increase with maturity.
All sprint-speed measures, standing long jump (SLJ) distance and vaulting vertical take-off
velocity were significantly greater in the more mature gymnasts (p < .001; d > 0.65). Thus,
maturation appears to have a significant influence on absolute isometric and dynamic force time
variables, sprint speed and vaulting vertical take-off velocity.
Chapters 4-6 also indicated that across all tests, peak speed during a 20 m sprint protocol has
the strongest association with vaulting vertical take-off velocity (R2 = 59%) and also identified
the ratio of vertical to horizontal take-off velocity (Ratiovert-hori) as a secondary determinant (R2
= 12 %). Multiple regression analyses also revealed that of the jumping protocols, ground
contact time (GCT) and centre of mass displacement (COMΔ) from the drop jump [DJ] (14
%), combined with maturity status (41 %) had the highest predictive ability of vertical take-off
velocity (R2 = 55 %). However, the IMTP failed to explain a large amount of variance (R2 =
15%). Data indicate that maturation influences vaulting vertical take-off velocity in young
female gymnasts. Furthermore, our results highlight the importance of targeting peak sprint
speed alongside take-off technique to develop gymnasts’ ability to transfer linear speed to
vertical take-off velocity.
Study 4 (chapter 7) showed young female gymnasts significantly improved various kinetic
determinants of strength and power, sprint speed and vaulting take-off velocity after
participating in 10-months of supplementary neuromuscular training (GYM+NMT); changes
that were not typically evident in the gymnastics-training only (GYM) or maturity-matched
control (CON) groups. Analyses revealed that the observed significant adaptations in the
GYM+NMT training group occurred at different stages of the 10-month training program and
varied in magnitude (p < 0.05; g = 0.44-1.15). Isometric PFabs, horizontal jump distance and
Peak momentum during sprinting significantly improved at each testing session from baseline.
After 7-months of NMT, significant improvements were shown in isometric PFrel, CMJ height
and RSI and jump height in the DJ. The NMT stimulus took longer to transfer to sprinting and
vaulting performance, with peak sprint speed, spring-like behaviour in the DJ, and vaulting
vertical take-off velocity significantly improving after 10-months. Overall, the findings from
this study indicate that supplementary NMT can stimulate improvements in strength, power,
speed and vaulting performance above and beyond those achieved through gymnastics training



  • School of Sport and Health Sciences

Qualification level

  • Doctoral

Qualification name

  • PhD

Publication year


Usage metrics

    Cardiff Met Theses Collection


    Ref. manager