Cardiff Metropolitan University
850 - Magdeline Mannathoko.pdf (3.59 MB)

Interpreting the new lower primary art and craft component of the Creative and Performing Arts, the Botswana National Curriculum. Case studies of four primary schools in the South Central and Central North Regions. An illuminative evaluation.

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posted on 2022-10-14, 10:38 authored by Magdeline Chilalu Mannathoko


This thesis seeks to examine how lower primary school teachers in the South Central and Central North regions of Botswana have met the recommended learning outcomes of art and craft, as a discipline within the Creative and Performing Arts programme that was introduced in 2002. The study took place in four geographically and socio-economically representative schools. The literature review provides insights into history and current practices regarding teaching art and craft in primary education, in Botswana and comparatively throughout the world. The review material conditions the content of the study in terms of the aims and objectives of the subject in varying contexts, and establishes potential research methodology to be used in the recovery of essential data.

The research methodology was framed within Parlett and Hamilton's concept of "Illuminative Evaluation" accompanied by classroom participant observation additionally recorded on video, semi-structured interviews recorded by audio-recorder and case studies. Government documents were considered in this study as they inform the curriculum developers on the country's requirements in each sector. The retrieved and recorded data was analysed across the four schools in terms of responses to interviews and first-hand classroom observation of art and craft lessons.

The findings focus upon the key issues and problems identified and discussed that include curriculum planning, national and local interfaces, integration within the arts, resources, time allocation to the arts, and teacher ownership of schemes of work and their significant lack of confidence in teaching art and craft in which they remain marginalised because of inadequate prior training or guidance. Since participants were not all art and craft specialists some expressed concern about difficulties of content in the curriculum and referred to a lack of knowledge, understanding and skills in art and craft. The study concludes with a summary and recommendations that provides ways forward in the future for stimulating the teaching of art and craft in primary education in Botswana.



  • School of Education and Social Policy

Qualification level

  • Doctoral

Qualification name

  • PhD

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