Cardiff Metropolitan University
8558 - Engee Jamal Hariri.pdf (1.96 MB)

Gender and cultural influences on reproductive decision-making and fertility trends in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Download (1.96 MB)
posted on 2022-10-21, 14:56 authored by Engee A. Jamal-Hariri


This thesis presents a critical examination of dynamic fertility trends and reproductive

behaviour in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This is established through the following four objectives: to

establish a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between gender system and

reproductive behaviour; to determine the role of cultural, religion and social networks in

influencing family planning decisions; to analyse the changes that occurred in fertility trends in

a period of 8 years (2005-2013); and to describe the function of using innovative methods in

achieving such a sensitive study in a conservative society. This study applied a mixed

methodology, including a repeated questionnaire survey over a period of 8 years, and in-depth

interviews. It was found that an early age of marriage is common and regarded as advantageous

to the future of women. Moreover, this study reveals that Saudis place great and high value on

children, as children represent the flow of wealth from children to parents. Thus, the preferred

family size is relatively large (4 children) and both parents have a preference for male children.

Moreover, the study reveals that the traditional division of labour assigns women the

responsibility of taking care of children. Also, it was found that even though many women

found difficulties in discussing reproductive issues with their spouse, discussing fertility issues

reduced family size. Men are predominantly in control of reproductive decision-making in the

family, although when fertility decisions were mutual, family size declined. A higher

socioeconomic status promoted shared fertility decisions. Further, this study shows that there is

a high level of diffusion of contraceptive knowledge and practices among study respondents

and their social networks. However, planning family size is not a very common practice among

study respondents and having a large family is seen to be complying with a religious Islamic

duty, and reflects pride toward kinship relationships. It was also found that the extended family

provides a supporting motive for parents to have a large family. However, the latest survey, of

2013, revealed some positive changes in gender structure that could contribute to greater

gender equality, such as a rise in the age of marriage for both genders, more involvement of

males in household responsibility, an increase in mutual decision-making and practice of

planning for family size.



  • School of Sport and Health Sciences

Qualification level

  • Doctoral

Qualification name

  • PhD

Publication year


Usage metrics

    Cardiff Met Theses Collection



    Ref. manager