Effects of teaching behaviours on motivational processes in physical education
This thesis comprises of a collection of four research studies in the area ofmotivational climate in physical education (PE). In the first study, a computer based observational measure of the teaching behaviours that influence motivational climate(TARGET) was developed and the degree of congruence between the observationalmeasure and pupils' and teachers' subjective perceptions of the motivational climatewas evaluated. Results revealed mastery and performance involving teaching behaviours, congruency between teaching behaviours and subjective perceptions ofthe climate, and significant differences between teachers' and pupils' perceptions ofthe motivational climate. The second study further validated the measure of teaching behaviours by comparing teacher behaviours and pupils' perceptions of themotivational climate in a cross-cultural study. Results indicated significantly higherlevels of performance involving teaching behaviours and higher levels of a perceivedperformance climate in Singapore compared to the UK. Based on findings related to the authority structure in the cross-cultural study, the third study examined the effects of different teaching styles on the TARGET behaviours and pupils' focus groupresponses in PE lessons in the UK. Results revealed that pupil-centred teaching stylesresulted in more mastery involving teaching behaviours and more adaptivemotivational responses than the more teacher-centred style. Based on these findings,the final study instigated a mastery intervention programme for teacher educationbased on self-observation of filmed PE lessons and evaluated its effect on the TARGET behaviours, pupils' perceptions of the motivational climate and cognitiveand affective responses. The mastery intervention programme was successful infostering more mastery involving teaching behaviours. Contrary to the hypothesis,pupils' perceptions of the motivational climate were more performance involved post-intervention, which may have been due to the public nature of the recognitionand evaluation of effort and improvement (mastery coded). Further, results revealed that low affect pupils significantly increased their cognitive and affective responses from pre- to post-intervention.
- School of Sport and Health Sciences