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A study on the immunoregulatory properties of camel milk derived lipids (Camelus dromedarius)

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posted on 2022-10-13, 13:21 authored by Raya Hamdan Salim Al-Nasseri


Camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk is believed to have beneficial effects in

inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, however, there are few studies reporting the

immunoregulatory properties of the milk’s lipids. This study aimed to extract the lipid

component from camel milk and investigate its ability to regulate macrophage

inflammatory responses using the human macrophage derived cell-line, dTHP-1.

Omani camel milk lipid was over 95% triglyceride (TG) with major saturated fatty acids

(SFAs) identified as palmitic acid (35.28%), myristic acid (14.46%), stearic acid (7.40

%); and unsaturated (USFAs) oleic acid (19.31%) and palmitoleic acid (14.00%). These

fatty acids were identified as fatty acid methyl esters and analysed by Gas

Chromatography – Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The camel milk’s total lipids (TL) total

free fatty acids (TFAs) and unsaturated free fatty acids (USFAs) significantly reduced

glycated protein (gBSA) proinflammatory cytokine secretion (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 and

IL-6) by dTHP-1 cells. In addition the lipids down regulated gene expression of

markers of the proinflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype CD86 but in contrast the

lipids significantly enhanced markers of the M2 phenotype (CD206, CD163, Dectin-1,

IL-1Ra, and IL-10. TL also enhanced the translocation of the p50/p50 homodimers of

the nuclear transcription factor NF-κB, at the expense of p50/p65 heterodimer

translocation. The lipids significantly down regulated the expression and activation of

the inflammasome NLRP3/caspase-1/ASC assembly formation. Finally all the lipid

componets up-regulated significantly expression of the Ten-Eleven Translocation-2

(TET-2) transcription regulator, linking their actions to this recently discovered

regulator of the NLRP3 inflammasome. This study reports evidence that camel milk

lipids are in-vitro highly immunoregulatory in macrophages and their consumption

may be beneficial in inflammatory diseases such as diabetes.



  • School of Sport and Health Sciences

Qualification level

  • Doctoral

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  • PhD

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