Cardiff Metropolitan University
8708 - Iva Nekovarova.pdf (2.79 MB)

A feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial using the Personal Aspirations and Concerns Inventory for Offenders (PACIO) to improve short-term offenders’ motivation for, and participation in, custodial education and to reduce reconviction

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posted on 2022-10-21, 14:57 authored by Iva Nekovarova

 Offenders’ treatment motivation has been linked to improved treatment engagement (Sellen et al, 2009; Campbell et al., 2010) and in turn treatment completion is associated with better rehabilitation outcomes (McMurran & Theodosi, 2007). Custodial education has been suggested to reduce reoffending (e.g., Zgoba et al., 2008) and so it may be useful to develop ways of motivating offenders to participate in custodial workshops and education classes. Firstly, the exploratory study investigated post-release employment issues in short-term offenders (STOs) sentenced to custody of less than 12 months. Secondly, the main study described a feasibility study examining STOs’ motivation to participate in education. The Personal Aspiration and Concerns Inventory for Offenders (PACIO) is a goal-based motivational interview aimed at enhancing treatment motivation and assessing its adaptive and maladaptive dimensions (Campbell et al., 2010). Firstly, the PACIO was used as a preparatory motivational intervention to investigate its effect on education participation compared with STOs who received the PACIO plus a motivational interview (PACIO plus) and a nonintervention. Secondly, the effect of education participation on reconviction rates was investigated. Thirdly, the influence of adaptive motivation (AM) and learned helplessness/ powerlessness (LH/P) profiles were investigated in terms of education participation. The PACIO and PACIO plus did not increase STOs’ motivation and education participation. However, education participation reduced reconviction. AM and LH/P did not predict education participation. Since these results did not confirm the hypothesised outcomes, it is not feasible to use the PACIO or the PACIO plus to improve and assess STOs’ motivation for and participation in custodial education. Future research should focus on developing an effective preparatory motivational intervention for STOs to participate in education. 



  • School of Sport and Health Sciences

Qualification level

  • Doctoral

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  • PhD

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