A comparative analysis of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among lecturers in public and privately-owned universities in Nigeria
This comparative study integrates the Two-Factor Theory and the Job Characteristics
Concept to develop a Three-Factor Model to identify unsettling job satisfaction and
turnover intentions of academics at public and private Nigerian Universities.
A total of 280 (164 public and 116 private) academics were analysed using survey and
semi-structured interviews from a convenience-selected sample of 10 (five public and
five private) universities in North-Central Nigeria. The Mann-Whitney Uâ€“Test was used
to examine four hypotheses - to determine any statistically-significant differences in
the overall levels of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, core job dimensions and turnover
intention between lecturers from the sampled groups.
The statistically-significant findings showed no differences in overall intrinsic factors,
but advancement and growth opportunities at public universities were greater than at
private universities due to their exclusive access to government funding. There were
no overall extrinsic job satisfaction differences, but private university lecturers
experienced better working conditions, while public university lecturers registered
higher job security. Also, overall job dimension factors, except for skill variety, did not
differ - private university lecturers had more skill opportunities. The turnover intentions
by private university academics revealed a higher turnover intention because of lack
of advancement and growth, job insecurity and the absence of Trade Unions.
Furthermore, work overload, insufficient research funding, small office space and
inadequate work facilities were the topmost job dissatisfactions of academic staff at
public and private universities.
By combining and refining the Two-Factor Theory and the Job Characteristics Model
into a unified approach, the Three-Factor Model highlights previously-unknown job
dissatisfaction causes at public and private universities. Consequently, policy makers
and other stakeholders should now have a fuller understanding of the turnover
anomaly not identified by previous theoretical models.
- School of Management