Cardiff Metropolitan University
Browse
journal.pone.0258966_Rahman.pdf (959.67 kB)

Timing of parental depression on risk of child depression and poor educational outcomes: A population based routine data cohort study from Born in Wales, UK

Download (959.67 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2022-09-26, 16:44 authored by Sinead Brophy, Charlotte Todd, Muhammad A. Rahman, Natasha Kennedy, Frances Rice

 

Background

Maternal depression is a risk factor for depression in children, though the influence of paternal depression has been less well examined. We examined the association between maternal and paternal depression, and the timing of their depression (before or after the child’s birth) and outcomes for the child including incidence of child depression and poor educational attainment.

Methods

A linked routine data cohort study linking General Practitioner(GP), hospital and education records of young people (aged 0 to 30 years) in Wales. Parental and child diagnosis of depression was identified from GP data. Regression analysis examined the association of maternal and paternal depression with time to diagnosis of depression in the child and odds of attaining educational milestones.

Outcomes

In adjusted models, the relative risk of offspring developing depression was 1.22 if the mother had depression before the child was born, 1.55 if the mother had depression after the child was born and 1.73 if she had depression both before and after the child was born (chronic depression), compared to those were there was no maternal depression history. For achieving milestones at end of primary school, odds were 0.92, 0.88 and 0.79 respectively. Association of depression in the child was similar if the male living in the household had depression with risk ratios of 1.24 (before), 1.43 (after) and 1.27 (before and after) for child diagnosed depression and 0.85, 0.79 and 0.74 for achieving age 11 milestones.

Interpretation

Children who live with a parent who has depression are more likely to develop depression and not achieve educational milestones, compared to children who live with a parent who has a history of depression (but no active depression in child’s lifetime) and compared to those with no depression. This finding suggests that working closely with families where depression (particularly chronic depression) is present in either parent and treating parental depression to remission is likely to have long-term benefits for children’s mental health and educational attainment.

History

Published in

PLOS ONE

Publisher

Public Library of Science

Version

  • VoR (Version of Record)

Citation

Brophy S, Todd C, Rahman MA, Kennedy N, Rice F (2021) Timing of parental depression on risk of child depression and poor educational outcomes: A population based routine data cohort study from Born in Wales, UK. PLoS ONE 16(11): e0258966. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0258966

Electronic ISSN

1932-6203

Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Technologies

Cardiff Met Authors

Muhammad A. Rahman

Copyright Holder

  • © The Authors

Language

  • en

Usage metrics

    School of Technologies Research - Journal Articles

    Keywords

    Licence

    Exports

    RefWorks
    BibTeX
    Ref. manager
    Endnote
    DataCite
    NLM
    DC