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The cross on rings performed by an Olympic champion

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-05-17, 16:31 authored by Paulo Carrara, Alberto Carlos Amadio, Júlio Cerca Serrão, Gareth Irwin, Luis Mochizuki

 The cross is a key skill in Male Artistic Gymnastics rings routines. However, few researches were found about this skill. There is knowledge about the forces needed to perform the cross, or about muscles activation, separately. The aim of this paper was to accomplish a comprehensive research about the biomechanics of cross on rings, in order to obtain a descriptive model about this skill. Therefore, the currently Olympic champion on rings event volunteered in this research. He performed three crosses with the usual apparatus in his training gym. The measurement methods were combined: One digital video camera, one strain gauge in each cable and surface electromyography of nine right shoulder muscles were used. Statistical analyses were performed by parametric and non parametric tests and descriptive statistics. Symmetry values were calculated for shoulder angles and cables of right and left side. Coefficient of variation of muscle activation and co contraction were verified. Within gymnast variability was calculated using biological coefficient of variation (BCV), discretely for kinematic measures. Low variability values of shoulder angles and cable forces were verified and low values of asymmetry as well. Muscle activation varied according to muscle function, while co-contraction values were different among trials. These results pointed out the characteristics of the cross performed by an elite gymnast. Knowledge about the characteristics of cross can inform coaches, practitioners and clinicians how a successful skill should be presented. 


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Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte




  • VoR (Version of Record)


Carrara, P., Amadio, A., Serrão, J., Irwin, G., Mochizuki, L. (2016) 'The cross on rings performed by an Olympic champion', Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Esporte, 30(1), pp.71-77

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Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Gareth Irwin

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • High Performance

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  • © The Authors


  • en

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