Cardiff Metropolitan University
Speech and self harm main doc-FINAL accepted_Yvonne Wren.pdf (725.92 kB)

The association between atypical speech development and adolescent self-harm

Download (725.92 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2023-05-02, 16:22 authored by Jan McAllister, Jane Skinner, Rosemarie Hayhow, Jon Heron, Yvonne Wren



Adolescent self-harm is a major public health issue internationally. Various factors associated with adolescent self-harm have been identified, including being bullied and experiencing mental health problems. Stuttering and speech sound disorder are associated with both of these factors. It was hypothesized that both stuttering and speech sound disorder would be associated with self-harm. This is the first study to explore the relationship between communication disorders and adolescent self-harm.


Secondary analysis of a large, longitudinal, prospective, community sample, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, was carried out. Clinicians identified children who stuttered or exhibited speech sound disorder at the age of 8 years. When the cohort members were 16 years old, they were asked to complete a questionnaire about self-harm. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between stuttering and speech sound disorder and the self-harm outcomes, adjusting for other relevant factors.


Of 3,824 participants with data for both speech status and self-harm, 94 (2.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI; 2.0, 3.0]) stuttered at 8 years of age and 127 (3.3%; 95% CI [2.8, 3.9]) displayed speech sound disorder. Speech sound disorder at the age of 8 years was associated with self-harm with suicidal intent in both unadjusted and adjusted models. Differences between the adjusted and unadjusted models were small, suggesting that speech sound disorder is largely an independent risk factor for self-harm with suicidal intent. Stuttering at the age of 8 years was not associated with adolescent self-harm, and there was no association between speech sound disorder and self-harm without suicidal intent.


Compared with individuals without speech sound disorder, adolescents with speech sound disorder at the age of 8 years have twice the risk of reporting self-harm with suicidal intent, even when other important predictors are taken into account.


Wellcome Trust and Medical Research Council (Grant 076467/Z/05/Z)


Published in

Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association


  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)


McAllister, J., Skinner, J., Hayhow, R., Heron, J. and Wren, Y. (2023) 'The association between atypical speech development and adolescent self-harm', Journal of speech, language, and hearing research, pp.1-18. doi: 10.1044/2023_JSLHR-21-00652

Print ISSN


Electronic ISSN


Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Yvonne Wren

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Speech, Hearing and Communication

Copyright Holder

  • © The Publisher


  • en

Usage metrics

    Population Risk & Healthcare - Journal Articles



    Ref. manager