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The Identification of Multidrug-Resistant MicroorganismsincludingBergeyella zoohelcumAcquired from theSkin/Prosthetic Interface of Amputees and Their Susceptibilityto Medihoney™ and Garlic Extract (Allicin)

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posted on 01.02.2022, 16:58 by Ruby Harsent, Joshua Macleod, Richard S. Rowlands, Paul M. Smith, Neil Rushmere, James Blaxland
Users of prosthetic devices face the accumulation of potentially drug-resistant pathogenic
bacteria on the skin/prosthesis interface. In this study, we took surface swabs of the skin/prosthesis
interface of eleven disabled athletes to identify microorganisms present. In addition to determining
their antimicrobial resistance profile, we assessed their sensitivity to Manuka honey and Garlic extract
(allicin). Eleven volunteers were directed to swab the skin at the skin/prosthesis interface. After initial
isolation of microorganisms, we employed the following general microbiological methods: Gram
stain, Catalase test, Oxidase test, lactose fermenting capability, haemolytic capability, Staphaurex,
mannitol fermenting capability, Streptex; API Staph, 20E, Candida, and BBL crystal identification
system tests. Once identified, isolates were analysed for their sensitivity to penicillin, erythromycin,
ampicillin, vancomycin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and colistin-sulphate. Isolates were
also analysed for their sensitivity to allicin (Garlic Extract (GE)) and Manuka honey (Medihoney™)
(MH). Eleven isolates were identified: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus,
Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Micrococcus spp., Bacillus subtilis, Group D Streptococcus,
Pantoea spp., Enterobacter cloacae, and Bergeyella zoohelcum. All isolates were resistant to 1 unit of
penicillin and 10 µg of ampicillin. Bergeyella zoohelcum was observed to have the widest range of
resistance with observed resistance against five of the eight antimicrobials employed in this study.
This study highlights the prevalence of uncommon drug-resistant microorganisms on the skin within
a vulnerable population, highlighting the potential for MH or GE intervention.


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Harsent, R., Smith, P., Blaxland, J.A. and Rushmere, N., (2022) 'The Identification of Multidrug Resistant Microorganisms Including Bergyella Zoohelcum Acquired from the Skin/Prosthetic Interface of Amputees and Their Susceptibility to Medihoney™ and Garlic Extract (Allicin)', Microorganisms,10 (2) doi: 10.3390/microorganisms10020299

Electronic ISSN


Cardiff Met Affiliation

Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Paul Smith James Blaxland

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Microbiology & Infection

Copyright Holder

© The Authors