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Prevalence of metabolic risk factors and associated 10‐year prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in female employees

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journal contribution
posted on 26.04.2022, 13:03 authored by Benjamin J Gray, Richard M. Bracken, Daniel Turner, Kerry Morgan, Stephen MellalieuStephen Mellalieu, Michael Thomas, Sally P. Williams, Meurig Williams, Sam Rice, Jeffrey W. Stephens

 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remain two of the greatest health challenges in the United Kingdom. Guidelines currently advocate screening individuals to identify those at ‘high risk’ (10‐year risk ≥20%) of CVD and T2DM. This study examined the prevalence of undiagnosed risk factors associated with these two conditions and predicted 10‐year risk. Female local health board employees (n = 371) with no prior diagnosis of CVD or T2DM accepted an invitation for a workplace‐based health assessment. Demographic, anthropometric, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, family and medical histories were all recorded and capillary blood samples obtained for analysis of total and HDL cholesterol and HbA1c. Ten‐year CVD and T2DM risk were predicted using the QRISK2 and QDiabetes algorithms, respectively. A significant proportion of females were either overweight (37.2%) or obese (23.5%), coupled with a high percentage with central obesity (77.6%). Systolic hypertension (42.0%), diastolic hypertension (39.4%) and/or reduced HDL concentrations (32.6%) were also prevalent in a large number of female workers. However, <1% of all workers were at ‘high risk’ of CVD and only 3.2% were predicted to be at ‘high risk’ of developing T2DM in the next 10 years. The vast majority of females assessed were at ‘low risk’ (<10%) of either CVD or T2DM. Despite strong evidence of metabolic risk factors observed in female employees, only a small proportion of workers were predicted to be at 10‐year high risk of either CVD or T2DM. 


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Practical Diabetes




AM (Accepted Manuscript)


Gray, B.J., Bracken, R.M., Turner, D., Morgan, K., Mellalieu, S.D., Thomas, M., Williams, S.P., Williams, M., Rice, S. and Stephens, J.W. (2014) 'Prevalence of metabolic risk factors and associated 10‐year prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in female employees', Practical Diabetes, 31(7), pp.281-285

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Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Stephen Mellalieu

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Mental Health and Wellbeing in Demanding Environments

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