Cardiff Metropolitan University
10004 2.pdf (279.62 kB)

Neuromuscular Training Improves Lower Extremity Biomechanics Associated with Knee Injury during Landing in 11–13 Year Old Female Netball Athletes: A Randomized Control Study

Download (279.62 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2022-12-05, 13:29 authored by Amanda J Hopper, Erin E Haff, Christopher Joyce, Rhodri S. Lloyd, G Gregory Haff

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training (NMT) program on lower-extremity biomechanics in youth female netball athletes. The hypothesis was that significant improvements would be found in landing biomechanics of the lower-extremities, commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, following NMT. Twenty-three athletes (age = 12.2 ± 0.9 years; height = 1.63 ± 0.08 m; mass = 51.8 ± 8.5 kg) completed two testing sessions separated by 7-weeks and were randomly assigned to either a experimental or control group. Thirteen athletes underwent 6-weeks of NMT, while the remaining 10 served as controls and continued their regular netball training. Three-dimensional lower-extremity kinematics and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) were measured during two landing tasks, a drop vertical jump and a double leg broad jump with a single leg landing. The experimental group significantly increased bilateral knee marker distance during the bilateral landing task at maximum knee-flexion range of motion. Knee internal rotation angle during the unilateral landing task at maximum knee flexion-extension range of motion was significantly reduced (p ≤ 0.05, g > 1.00). The experimental group showed large, significant decreases in peak vertical ground reaction force in both landing tasks (p ≤ 0.05, g > −1.30). Control participants did not demonstrate any significant pre-to-post-test changes in response to the 6-week study period. Results of the study affirm the hypothesis that a 6-week NMT program can enhance landing biomechanics associated with ACL injury in 11–13 year old female netball athletes. 


This project was funded by an Edith Cowan University Post Graduate Research Grant.


Published in

Frontiers in Physiology




  • VoR (Version of Record)


Hopper, A., Haff, E., Joyce, C., Lloyd, R. and Haff, G. (2017) 'Neuromuscular training improves lower extremity biomechanics associated with knee injury during landing in 11-13 year old female netball athletes', Frontiers in Physiology, 8.

Electronic ISSN


Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Rhodri S Lloyd

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Youth Physical Development

Copyright Holder

  • © The Authors


  • en

Usage metrics

    Applied Sport Science - Journal Articles




    Ref. manager