Cardiff Metropolitan University
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Multi-dimensional framework as a new way to study the management of Olympic volunteering

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-03-31, 14:36 authored by Olesya Nedvetskaya
This paper presents a new comprehensive framework that brings together a wide range of themes and issues pertaining to the management of Olympic volunteering lacking in the literature. It helps answer the following research question: how and for whom volunteer programmes work, in what circumstances, to what effect and over what duration. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical value of combining the Volunteer Process Model (VPM) (Omoto & Snyder, 2002), Human Resource Management (HRM) Model (Cuskelly et al., 2006) and Legacy Cube (Preuss, 2007). This theoretical synergy helps unpack ‘what’ we study, while the premises of critical realist evaluation (Pawson, 2013) ‘Context + Mechanism = Outcome’ (CMO) aid in answering ‘why’ and ‘how’ we study it.

Research methods
The London 2012 Olympic Games volunteer (Games Maker or GM) programme was the primary case for this research. Data was gathered before, during and 14 months after the Games in the UK via a mixed methods approach. Survey data from volunteers was complemented with semi-structured interviews with volunteers and managers, the author’s participant observations and documentary analysis.

Results and findings
The proposed framework helped identify and evaluate the systems, mechanisms, and processes of developing and managing the GM programme. It became evident that unless key event stakeholders acknowledge the complex nature of Olympic volunteering and put adequate structures, resources and practices in place, the volunteer programmes are ineffective in managing volunteers and attaining a sustainable volunteering legacy.

This paper offers valuable insights into the organisation and management of Olympic volunteering to achieve various programme results. It answers a call for a holistic approach to the phenomenon under study and features new directions for continued academic research in this critical area.


Published in

European Sport Management Quarterly


Taylor & Francis


  • VoR (Version of Record)


Nedvetskaya, O. (2022) 'Multi-dimensional framework as a new way to study the management of Olympic volunteering', European Sport Management Quarterly, pp.1-26. doi: 10.1080/16184742.2022.2043922

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Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Olesya Nedvetskaya

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Sport Management and Development

Copyright Holder

  • © The Authors


  • en

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