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MXenes: Synthesis, properties, and applications for sustainable energy and environment

journal contribution
posted on 2023-11-24, 11:04 authored by Tajudeen A. Oyehan, Babatunde SalamiBabatunde Salami, Abdulrahman A. Abdulrasheed, Hambali Umar Hambali, Afeez Gbadamosi, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Tawfik A. Saleh

MXenes, the largest and most diverse group of emerging two-dimensional materials, have potential across multiple applications. The increasing attention is driven by the fascinating tunable surface properties, and synergetic chemistry facilitated by the presence of multiple chemical bonds dominated by covalent and metallic bonds between transition metals (M) and non-metals, X (such as carbon, nitrogen, or both). Although the various available synthesis approaches offer opportunities for tuning MXenes for specific applications, their inherent environmental and toxicity risks as well as poor scale-up potential are currently hampering research and commercialization progress. Therefore, ongoing efforts are focused on developing less hazardous, scalable methodologies to limit the barriers. This review comprehensively surveys the literature from the seminal MXene paper to the present, offering insights into the factors, latest advancements, limitations, trends, and existing gaps in MXene synthesis, properties, and applications in the areas of environment and energy storage. Special emphasis is placed on the need to address environmental concerns associated with fluoride-based synthesis while an overview of safer, non-fluoride alternatives is provided. Furthermore, the most recent breakthroughs in scalable top-down dry selective etching (DSE), bottom-up solid-state direct synthesis, and structural editing protocol using chemical scissors are presented. In particular, this review critically examines the current state of knowledge and identifies key research progresses and areas that deserve intensive attention to facilitate safe and industrial-scale synthesis and application of MXenes for catalysis, environmental remediation, and energy storage. Addressing the identified gaps will accelerate the transformation of MXenes and their composites into the components of our everyday appliances.





  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)


A. Oyehan, Tajudeen; Salami, Babatunde; A. Abdulrasheed, Abdulrahman; Umar Hambali, Hambali; Gbadamosi, Afeez; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; et al. (2023) 'MXenes: Synthesis, properties, and applications for sustainable energy and environment', Applied Materials Today.

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Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Management

Cardiff Met Authors

Babatunde Salami

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Welsh Centre for Business and Management Research


  • en