Cardiff Metropolitan University
jcdd-09-00438.pdf (478.49 kB)

Left ventricular responses during exercise in highly trained youth athletes: Echocardiographic insights on function and adaptation

Download (478.49 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2022-12-12, 17:08 authored by Viswanath B Unnithan, Alexander Beaumont, Thomas Rowlands, Keith George, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Rachel LordRachel Lord, Andisheh Bakhshi, David Lee Oxborough

 There is an increase in the prevalence of elite youth sports academies, whose sole aim is to develop future elite athletes. This involves the exposure of the child and adolescent athlete to high-volume training during a period of volatile growth. The large amount of data in this area has been garnered from the resting echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) evaluation of the youth athlete; while this can provide some insight on the functional adaptations to training, it is unable to elucidate a comprehensive overview of the function of the youth athletes’ LV during exercise. Consequently, there is a need to interrogate the LV responses in-exercise. This review outlines the feasibility and functional insight of capturing global indices of LV function (Stroke Index-SVIndex and Cardiac Index-QIndex), systolic and diastolic markers, and cardiac strain during submaximal and maximal exercise. Larger SVI and QI were noted in these highly trained young athletes compared to recreationally active peers during submaximal and maximal exercise. The mechanistic insights suggest that there are minimal functional systolic adaptions during exercise compared to their recreationally active peers. Diastolic function was superior during exercise in these young athletes, and this appears to be underpinned by enhanced determinants of pre-load. 


Published in

Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease




  • VoR (Version of Record)


Unnithan, Viswanath B., Alexander Beaumont, Thomas Rowland, Keith George, Nicholas Sculthorpe, Rachel N. Lord, Andisheh Bakhshi, and David Oxborough. (2022) "Left Ventricular Responses during Exercise in Highly Trained Youth Athletes: Echocardiographic Insights on Function and Adaptation" Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease 9, no. 12: 438.

Electronic ISSN


Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Rachel Lord

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Cardiovascular Physiology

Copyright Holder

  • © The Authors


  • en

Usage metrics

    Cardiovascular Health & Ageing - Journal Articles



    Ref. manager