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Kinetic responses to external cues are specific to both the type of cue and type of exercise in adolescent athletes

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posted on 2022-08-02, 11:44 authored by Saldiam R. Barillas, Jon Oliver, Rhodri S. Lloyd, Jason S. Pedley

 The purpose of this study was to examine how external cues influence kinetics during isometric and dynamic tasks in adolescent athletes. Fifteen adolescent male soccer players performed an isometric midthigh pull (IMTP), unloaded and loaded squat jumps (15 and 30% of body mass), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) using a neutral or external force- or velocity-specific cues. Cue type had limited effects on outcomes in the IMTP, or squat jumps, with mostly trivial (g < 0.20), non-significant differences (p > 0.05) across kinetic variables. In the CMJ and DJ, a force cue significantly (p < 0.05) increased jump height (g = 0.43 & 0.52) compared to a velocity cue; but, in the DJ, a force cue significantly increased jump height (g = 0.52) compared to both a neutral and velocity cue. However, a velocity cue significantly (p < 0.05) reduced ground contact time (g = 0.73 – 1.52) and time to peak force (g = 0.50 – 1.29) in both the CMJ and DJ when compared to a force and neutral cue, and, increased force and power-related measures (g = 0.33 – 1.12) in the CMJ and DJ when compared to a force cue. In adolescent athletes, the type of external cue had limited effects on kinetic measures in an IMTP and SJ but differential effects on both a CMJ and DJ, suggesting cues have more effect with increasing movement velocity. Consequently, practitioners working with adolescent athletes should consider both the type of exercise and the desired outcome when providing external cues.  


This work was funded by internally available funds and is made available under the requirements of the Cardiff Met Open Research Policy


Published in

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research


Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins


  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)


Barillas, S.R., Oliver, J.L., Lloyd, R.S. and Pedley, J.S., (2022) 'Kinetic Responses to External Cues Are Specific to Both the Type of Cue and Type of Exercise in Adolescent Athletes', The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, pp.10-1519. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000004307

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Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Jon Oliver Rhodri S. Lloyd Jason Pedley

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Youth Physical Development

Copyright Holder

  • © The Publisher

Publisher Rights Statement

This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research


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