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Effects of a 10-Month Neuromuscular Training Program on Strength, Power, Speed and Vault Performance in Young Female Gymnasts

journal contribution
posted on 01.02.2022, 10:52 by Sylvia Moeskops, Jon Oliver, Paul J. Read, G. Gregory Haff, Gregory D. Myer, Rhodri S. Lloyd

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate a 10-month neuromuscular training (NMT) intervention on isometric and dynamic kinetics, standing long jump (SLJ) distance, speed and sport-specific performance. Methods: Forty-three pre-pubertal female gymnasts were allocated into either a gymnastics + NMT (gNMT; n = 16), gymnastics only (GYM, n = 15) or maturity-matched control (CON; n = 12) group. The gNMT followed a 10-month, twice-weekly NMT program that targeted movement competency, strength, power and speed. Vaulting vertical take-off velocity, speed, SLJ distance and kinetics during an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were measured at baseline and thereafter at 4, 7 and 10 months. Within-group differences were calculated using 3 x 4 repeated measures ANCOVAs. Results: Interaction effects were observed for SLJ distance and various IMTP, DJ and vaulting variables. The gNMT showed significant improvements in IMTP absolute force and SLJ distance after 4-months, and each subsequent testing session. IMTP relative force and various CMJ and DJ kinetics significantly improved in the gNMT from 7-months. Significant gains in speed and vaulting take-off velocity occurred after 10-months. The GYM group achieved some significant improvements in CMJ impulse, absolute isometric strength and DJ spring-like behaviour, while the CON group did not experience any changes. Conclusion: The addition of NMT to gymnastics training improved various isometric and dynamic kinetics, SLJ distance, speed and vaulting take-off velocity in the gNMT; changes that were not equally evidenced for GYM or CON. The threshold for most of the training-induced adaptations observed in IMTP relative force, CMJ and DJ kinetics, sprint speed and vaulting were achieved after 7-months, which emphasise the efficacy of long-term NMT programs for young gymnasts.


Published in

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise


Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins


AM (Accepted Manuscript)


Moeskops, S., Oliver, J.L., Read, P.J., Haff, G.G., Myer, G.D. and Lloyd, R.S., 2022. Effects of a 10-Month Neuromuscular Training Program on Strength, Power, Speed and Vault Performance in Young Female Gymnasts. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002862

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Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Sylvia Moeskops Jon L. Oliver Rhodri S. Lloyd

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Youth Physical Development

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