Cardiff Metropolitan University
Binder1.pdf (1.8 MB)

Effects of a 10-Month Neuromuscular Training Program on Strength, Power, Speed and Vault Performance in Young Female Gymnasts

Download (1.8 MB)
journal contribution
posted on 2022-02-01, 10:52 authored by Sylvia Moeskops, Jon Oliver, Paul J. Read, G. Gregory Haff, Gregory D. Myer, Rhodri S. Lloyd

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate a 10-month neuromuscular training (NMT) intervention on isometric and dynamic kinetics, standing long jump (SLJ) distance, speed and sport-specific performance. Methods: Forty-three pre-pubertal female gymnasts were allocated into either a gymnastics + NMT (gNMT; n = 16), gymnastics only (GYM, n = 15) or maturity-matched control (CON; n = 12) group. The gNMT followed a 10-month, twice-weekly NMT program that targeted movement competency, strength, power and speed. Vaulting vertical take-off velocity, speed, SLJ distance and kinetics during an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) were measured at baseline and thereafter at 4, 7 and 10 months. Within-group differences were calculated using 3 x 4 repeated measures ANCOVAs. Results: Interaction effects were observed for SLJ distance and various IMTP, DJ and vaulting variables. The gNMT showed significant improvements in IMTP absolute force and SLJ distance after 4-months, and each subsequent testing session. IMTP relative force and various CMJ and DJ kinetics significantly improved in the gNMT from 7-months. Significant gains in speed and vaulting take-off velocity occurred after 10-months. The GYM group achieved some significant improvements in CMJ impulse, absolute isometric strength and DJ spring-like behaviour, while the CON group did not experience any changes. Conclusion: The addition of NMT to gymnastics training improved various isometric and dynamic kinetics, SLJ distance, speed and vaulting take-off velocity in the gNMT; changes that were not equally evidenced for GYM or CON. The threshold for most of the training-induced adaptations observed in IMTP relative force, CMJ and DJ kinetics, sprint speed and vaulting were achieved after 7-months, which emphasise the efficacy of long-term NMT programs for young gymnasts.


This work was funded by internally available funds and is made available under the requirements of the Cardiff Met Open Research Policy


Published in

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise


Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins


  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)


Moeskops, S., Oliver, J.L., Read, P.J., Haff, G.G., Myer, G.D. and Lloyd, R.S., 2022. Effects of a 10-Month Neuromuscular Training Program on Strength, Power, Speed and Vault Performance in Young Female Gymnasts. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002862

Print ISSN


Electronic ISSN


Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Sylvia Moeskops Jon L. Oliver Rhodri S. Lloyd

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Youth Physical Development

Copyright Holder

  • © The Publisher

Publisher Rights Statement

This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise


  • en