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Cross-Border Alliances and Strategic Games.pdf (2.86 MB)

Cross-border alliances and strategic games

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posted on 2023-08-14, 10:15 authored by Issam Tlemsani, Robin Matthews, Mohamed Ashmel Mohamed HashimMohamed Ashmel Mohamed Hashim


This empirical research examined the factors and conditions that contribute to the success of international strategic learning alliances. The study aimed to provide organisations with evidence-based insights and recommendations that can help them to create more effective and sustainable partnerships and to leverage collaborative learning to drive innovation and growth. The examination is performed using game theory as a mathematical framework to analyse the interaction of the decision-makers, where one alliance's decision is contingent on the decision made by others in the partnership. There are 20 possible games out of 120 outcomes that can be grouped into four different types; each type has been divided into several categories.


The research methodology included secondary and primary data collection using empirical data, the Delphi technique for obtaining qualitative data, a research questionnaire for collecting quantitative data and computer simulation (1,000 cases, network resources and cooperative game theory). The key variables collected and measured when analysing a strategic alliance were identified, grouped and mapped into the developed model.


Most respondents ranked reputation and mutual benefits in Type 1 games relatively high, averaging 4.1 and 3.85 of a possible 5. That is significantly higher than net transfer benefits, ranked at 0.61. The a priori model demonstrate that Type 1 games are the most used in cooperative games and in-game distribution, 40% of all four types of games. This is also confirmed by the random landscape model, approximately 50%. The results of the empirical data in a combination of payoff characteristics for Type 1 games show that joint and reputation benefits are critical for the success of cooperation.

Practical implications

Research on cross-border learning alliances has several implications. Managerial implications can help managers to understand the challenges and benefits of engaging in these activities. They can use this knowledge to develop strategies to improve the effectiveness of their cross-border learning alliances. Practical implications, the development of game theory and cross-border models can be applied in effective decision-making in a variety of complex contexts. Learning alliances have important policy implications, particularly in trade, investment and innovation. Policymakers must consider the potential benefits and risks of these collaborations and develop policies that encourage and support them while mitigating potential negative impacts.


International learning alliances have become a popular strategy for firms seeking to gain access to new knowledge, capabilities and markets in foreign countries. The originality of this research lies in its ability to contribute to the understanding of the dynamics and outcomes of these complex relationships in a novel and meaningful way.





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Tlemsani, I., Matthews, R. and Mohamed Hashim, M.A. (2023) 'Cross-border alliances and strategic games', Journal of Work-Applied Management.

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Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Management

Cardiff Met Authors

Mohamed Ashmel Mohamed Hashim

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Welsh Centre for Business and Management Research

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