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Asymmetry analysis of the arm segments during forward handspring on floor.pdf (390.53 kB)

Asymmetry analysis of the arm segments during forward handspring on floor

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journal contribution
posted on 2022-04-12, 15:47 authored by Timothy A. Exell, Gemma Robinson, Gareth Irwin

 Asymmetry in gymnastics underpins successful performance and may also have implications as an injury mechanism; therefore, understanding of this concept could be useful for coaches and clinicians. The aim of this study was to examine kinematic and external kinetic asymmetry of the arm segments during the contact phase of a fundamental skill, the forward handspring on floor. Using a repeated single subject design six female National elite gymnasts (age: 19 ± 1.5 years, mass: 58.64 ± 3.72 kg, height: 1.62 ± 0.41 m), each performed 15 forward handsprings, synchronised 3D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. Asymmetry between the lead and non-lead side arms was quantified during each trial. Significant kinetic asymmetry was observed for all gymnasts (p < 0.005) with the direction of the asymmetry being related to the lead leg. All gymnasts displayed kinetic asymmetry for ground reaction force. Kinematic asymmetry was present for more gymnasts at the shoulder than the distal joints. These findings provide useful information for coaching gymnastics skills, which may subjectively appear to be symmetrical. The observed asymmetry has both performance and injury implications. 


Published in

European Journal of Sport Science


Taylor & Francis


  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)


Exell, T. A., Robinson, G. and Irwin, G. (2016). 'Asymmetry analysis of the arm segments during forward handspring on floor, European Journal of Sport Science' 16(5), pp.545-552

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Electronic ISSN


Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Gemma Robinson Gareth Irwin

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • High Performance
  • Sports Performance Analysis

Copyright Holder

  • © The Publisher


  • en

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