Cardiff Metropolitan University
Assessing phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa -Beeton M.pdf (268.82 kB)

Assessing phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a Galleria mellonella infection model

Download (268.82 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2022-03-25, 16:07 authored by Mike BeetonMike Beeton, D.R. Alves, M.C. Enright, A.T.A. Jenkins
The Galleria mellonella infection model was used to assess the in vivo efficacy of phage therapy against laboratory and clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a first series of experiments, Galleria were infected with the laboratory strain P. aeruginosa PAO1 and were treated with varying multiplicity of infection (MOI) of phages either 2 h post-infection (treatment) or 2 h pre-infection (prevention) via injection into the haemolymph. To address the kinetics of infection, larvae were bled over a period of 24 h for quantification of bacteria and phages. Survival rates at 24 h when infected with 10 cells/larvae were greater in the prevention versus treatment model (47% vs. 40%, MOI = 10; 47% vs. 20%, MOI = 1; and 33% vs. 7%, MOI = 0.1). This pattern held true when 100 cells/larvae were used (87% vs. 20%, MOI = 10; 53% vs. 13%, MOI = 1; 67% vs. 7%, MOI = 0.1). By 24 h post-infection, phages kept bacterial cell numbers in the haemolymph 1000-fold lower than in the non-treated group. In a second series of experiments using clinical strains to further validate the prevention model, phages protected Galleria when infected with both a bacteraemia (0% vs. 85%) and a cystic fibrosis (80% vs. 100%) isolate. Therefore, this study validates the use of G. mellonella as a simple, robust and cost-effective model for initial in vivo examination of P. aeruginosa-targeted phage therapy, which may be applied to other pathogens with similarly low infective doses.


Published in

International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents




  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)


Beeton M. L., Alves. D. R., Enright M. C. and Jenkins A. T. A. (2016) ' Assessing phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a Galleria mellonella infection model', International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 46 (2), pp.196-200

Print ISSN


Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Mike Beeton Michael L. Beeton

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Microbiology & Infection

Copyright Holder

  • © The Publisher


  • en

Usage metrics

    Population Risk & Healthcare - Journal Articles


    Ref. manager