Cardiff Metropolitan University
216-848-2-PB.pdf (509.93 kB)

A methanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) seeds regulates markers of macrophage polarization

Download (509.93 kB)
journal contribution
posted on 2022-03-28, 11:51 authored by Nurudeen Hassan, Cathryn Withycombe, Maninder Ahluwalia, Andrew ThomasAndrew Thomas, Keith Morris
Background: Macrophages are key cellular mediators in diabetes-related inflammation. Molecular cues such as cytokines found in the tissue microenvironment regulates the polarization of macrophages into an M1 (pro-inflammatory) or M2 (immunoregulatory) phenotype. Recent evidence suggests that M1 macrophages in diabetic patients may contribute to the complications associated with the disease such as atherosclerosis. Trigonella foenum-graecum(Tfg: fenugreek) seeds have been used in traditional medicinein Asia, Africa and the Middle-East for their alleged anti-diabetic properties. Objective: To identify the molecular mechanism(s) through which Tfgseeds exert their effects, we investigated the role of a crude methanolicextract of Tfgseeds(FME) on macrophage polarization in vitro. Method: THP-1 macrophages(Mφ)were treated withgBSAin the presence/absence of FME and the release and expression of M1 and M2 markers/cytokines were analysed. The role of FME onNF-κBactivity was also explored using transfected HEK-293Tcells. Results: This study found that the FME significantly (P<0.05) decreased gBSA-induced secretion of M1 cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) in THP-1 Mφcells. In the presence of gBSA, FME also significantly increased the gene expression of the M2 marker Dectin-1, but had no effect on IL-10, IL-1Ra. FME also significantly decreased TNF-α induced NF-kB reporter activity. Conclusion:These results suggest that FME can regulate the expression of M1 and M2 markers in THP-1 Mφcells. This may be potentially through the modulation of NF-kB activity. Further work should be carried out to identify precise mechanism(s)involved in the effects of FMEand Tfg seeds in diabetes and other conditions


Published in

Journal of Functional Foods in Health and Disease


Functional Food Center


  • VoR (Version of Record)


Hassan, N., Withycombe, C., Ahluwalia, M., Thomas, A. and Morris, K. (2015) 'A methanolic extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds regulates markers of macrophage polarization', Journal of Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 5 (12), pp. 417-426

Electronic ISSN


Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

Cardiff Met Authors

Cathryn Withycombe Maninder Ahluwalia Andrew Thomas Keith Morris

Cardiff Met Research Centre/Group

  • Cardiovascular Metabolism and Inflammation
  • Nutrition Food & Health

Copyright Holder

  • © The Publisher


  • en

Usage metrics

    Cardiovascular Health & Ageing - Journal Articles


    Ref. manager