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Discovering the opportunities for developing cybersecurity awareness in secondary education: A comparative study, Wales vs. Saudi Arabia

conference contribution
posted on 2023-10-10, 10:50 authored by Sophie Meace, Fiona CarrollFiona Carroll, Liqaa NawafLiqaa Nawaf, Daniyal AlghazzawiDaniyal Alghazzawi

 The rapid growth of internet technologies means that information is now available at peoples’ fingertips and humans are at risk of being exposed to the negative effects of cyberspace, for example cybercrime. Vital measures need to be taken in order to cultivate knowledge and awareness of cybersecurity amongst internet users from an early age (Rahman et al. 2020). Indeed, developing leaners who can both learn and succeed in this constantly evolving digital society is now a key role of the education sector (Beetham & Sharpe, 2010).

Recent curriculum changes in Wales and the launch of the Digital Competence Framework (DCF) (Welsh Government, 2018) mean that the importance of developing this awareness through education as a cross-curriculum responsibility is being recognised. The DCF specifically outlines a series of skills relating to cybersecurity education (for example, identify risks of giving personal information online, use strategies for protecting personal data, identify benefits/risks associated with device broadcasting location) that learners should be developing as they progress through the curriculum levels.

However, there are challenges to cybersecurity education. Specifically, the level of teachers’ knowledge and awareness to build these skills into the curriculum (Rahman et al. 2020). Through findings from a comparative study, we learn the differences between how teachers are feeling about using technology in their teaching practice and in turn, what opportunities (or lack of) there are to develop cybersecurity awareness through the curriculum in Wales and Saudi Arabia. 


Presented at

17th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, 6 -8 March, 2023. Valencia, Spain


International Academy of Technology, Education and Development


  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)


Meace, S., Carroll, F., Nawaf, L., & Algahazzwai, D. N. (2023) Discovering the opportunities for developing cybersecurity awareness in secondary education: A comparative study, Wales vs. Saudi Arabia. In INTED2023 Proceedings (pp. 6728-6737). IATED.

Electronic ISSN




Cardiff Met Affiliation

  • Cardiff School of Technologies

Cardiff Met Authors

Sophie Meace Fiona Carroll Liqaa Nawaf

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